There’s no escaping the fact that Earthlings evolved to thrive with a certain amount of gravity. So since the early days of space travel, NASA has been trying to figure out what happens to a human body beyond our planet’s pull.
The answer to your basic question is still being researched, being as nobody has lived in space for several years the answer may not come for a long while.
However, without a strong gravity field, the prospects are grimm.
Fun Fact :
In 1962, astronaut John Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth, along with a tube of applesauce.
To test the ability of Humans to eat in space.
Your inner ear works roughly like an accelerometer in a smartphone—it tells your body when you are moving or stopped, and when you are standing on your head or lying on your side. But in space, that little mechanism goes awry, which often gives astronauts motion sickness for a day or so after entering microgravity. Many also experience a similar problem when re-entering our planet’s pull.
One of the first things that scientists discovered in our ventures into space is that the low-gravity lifestyle doesn’t lend itself to strong bones and muscles, including the heart. While Earth-bound, these body parts actually work a fair amount just to keep us standing still. Without the downward force of gravity, the body works considerably less, causing muscle deterioration and loss of bone density.
In a single month in space, astronauts can lose as much bone mass as a postmenopausal woman does in a year, according to NASA. This startling decrease causes higher calcium levels in the blood, which can lead to a greater incidence of renal stones. To counteract these problems, while in space, astronauts exercise vigorously using specially designed machines.
Every second, fluids rush throughout our bodies, and for the Earth-bound, gravity helps move these fluids down into the legs. But take away gravity, and the fluids float up to the head.
Earth’s magnetic field provides a form of natural shielding that protects life on the surface from a good amount of high-energy radiation, which could otherwise damage DNA. Outside this safe zone, artificial shielding on the ISS can partially protect astronauts from radiation exposure, but it isn’t effective for all radiation types, leaving astronauts more susceptible to cancer and other long-term health risks.
A trip to Mars will be even more brutal, because in addition to the exposure time in transit, the red planet has no natural magnetic shield. With the latest ISS mission, scientists are hoping to suss out exactly how space radiation might trigger changes in DNA, and what that might mean for future Mars-bound travelers.
Despite all these severe-sounding effects, most of the known damage can be reversed after an astronaut’s return to Earth.
Study of the Impact of Long-Term Space Travel on the Astronauts' Microbiome (Microbiome) - 06.27.18
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The Human Body in Space
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